This pipe has a short handle and a round, partially broken bowl decorated with vegetation motifs. It is representative of the type of pipe that was popular in the Ottoman regions, that is, made up of a small recipient to contain the tobacco and to which is attached a long stem. A plant discovered in the New World in the sixteenth century, tobacco spread quickly to Europe and the Middle East but only became generalized in the beginning of the seventeenth century. It was apparently introduced by Portuguese sailors to the coastal cities, then spread by the soldiers and merchants throughout the entire Ottoman territory. Opposition to tobacco was manifested quite quickly, from and throughout the sixteenth century, with several fatwa issued against its consumption. An interdiction was imposed for the first time under the reign of Sultan Ahmad r. These interdictions would be linked to the fact that the places where tobacco was smoked, the coffee houses, became places of sedition. Thus tobacco was closely associated with the consumption of coffee, another newly introduced stimulant, and became an everyday item throughout the Ottoman Empire from the beginning of the seventeenth century. The interdiction of tobacco was completely lifted in when the Ottoman authorities realized the potential value of tobacco as a source of revenue for the imperial treasury.
Clay tobacco pipes, summarised from specialist report by Dr David Higgins
The guide even includes an illustrated list of the different kinds of mud , which in its seriousness may be amusing to some! Most locations have either patches or whole banks of shingle, some interspersed with areas of sand, others with areas of mud. For most visitors the fragments of clay tobacco pipe are the most memorable novelties, and a trademark of the Thames foreshore. Pieces of pipe-stem are easy to pick up in certain areas, complete bowls less so.. There are so many fragments, not just because for more than years they were sold filled and routinely chucked when smoked, but also because the hundreds of pipe-makers working along the foreshore would likely ditch their kiln leftovers or rejects into the Thames.
The top pipe bowl above dates from while the one below is a fairly typical decorated one from
Object Type: tobacco-pipe. Museum number: , Description: Clay tobacco-pipe bowl, incomplete with damaged spur. Production date:
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Higgins – Guidelines for Clay Tobacco Pipes from Archaeological Projects. David Higgins. These guidelines have been written with particular reference to British pipes but the same principles are widely applicable to assemblages from most other parts of the world.
Each section is intended to provide an overview of the topic, with general advice and pointers as to where more detailed guidance or resources can be found. They are also designed to encourage common standards amongst specialists and to enable archaeological curators and managers to assess the scope and quality of any given pipe report.
Clay tobacco pipes are a common artifact type found in historic Euro-American archaeological sites. These inexpensive and disposable items were generally manufactured, used, and thrown away within a very short span of time, and individual styles can often be traced to specific manufacturer and period of production. Thus, clay pipes can serve as a valuable tool in helping to date a historic archaeological site.
Clay pipes imported from England typically have a small bowl and long stem and are made of kaolin a fine, white clay ; this type of pipe is common to Colonial-period archaeological sites.
There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th and 18th century sites using imported English clay tobacco pipe.
The skill and experience of the individual undertaking the work will play a large part in determining how accurate and reliable any assessment of dating is, and specialist advice should certainly be taken when dealing with large assemblages or those where the pipe dating is fundamental to the excavated deposits. But it is certainly possible for a good assessment of date to be made by considering the key characteristics of any given pipe or pipe assemblage, guidelines for which are given below.
They can be used to indicate whether a context group is likely to contain residual material, or whether it represents a coherent and potentially tightly dated group. They can also be used to check any dates provided by associated bowl forms, marks or decoration, which can be especially useful for smaller contexts where only a few such pieces are present.
There are always exceptions but, in broad terms, stems can usually be allocated to one of three general date ranges by assessing their form, stem bore, fabric and finish. As a result, fragments usually show a clear taper along their length and can be quite chunky if the fragment comes from near the bowl. Some pipes were burnished during this period and many areas of the Midlands and northern England exploited local clays, where these were available. A fine sandy fabric was used in the Oxford area and pipes from areas with access to the Coal Measures often employed clays with opaque white gritty inclusions in them.
Stem stamps are only rarely found. As a result, they are generally rather cylindrical in appearance with less evidence of any stem taper. Burnishing was still used in some areas, but very rarely in the far south west, the south east and East Anglia. Local clays with inclusions were rarely used after about Stems were straight until the late eighteenth century when curved varieties were introduced.
Clay Pipes History
Thumbnails Detail Comments. The manufacture of clay pipes for smoking began in Britain about , a few years after the introduction of tobacco from America. The earliest forms of pipe were made from kaolin clay white ball clay and it is likely their form was adapted from those used by the American Indians. Since then, clay pipes manufactured within the British Isles continued to be made from kaolin clays which has the advantage over other clays of giving the pipe a uniformly white colour after firing and less shrinkage.
Dating clay pipes As a result of research and archaeological excavations, clay pipes can generally be dated to within 20 years or so and as such are now important artefacts used in dating archaeological layers.
Clay tobacco pipes were made in England shortly after the introduction of date the bowl grew larger and the stem increased to 10 – 14” ( – mm). A.
Reference: Atkinson, D. London Clay Tobacco Pipes. This file contains additional information such as Exif metadata which may have been added by the digital camera, scanner, or software program used to create or digitize it. If the file has been modified from its original state, some details such as the timestamp may not fully reflect those of the original file. The timestamp is only as accurate as the clock in the camera, and it may be completely wrong.
From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. File information. Structured data. Captions English Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents. This tobacco pipe has a small, rounded bowl.
Therefore, the most important step in identifying a makers’ mark is to first look at the pipe fragment from which it came. By studying the shape, size and characteristics of the pipe bowl it is possible to determine a date range for that particular fragment, and perhaps its regional origin. If this can be established, then the next task is to examine existing documentation for listings of pipemakers and collections of marked pipes which have already been identified.
In those cases when all you have to go by is a small marked pipe fragment, there are several criteria that can help establish a relative date range and then, hopefully, a positive maker identification.
Pipes of clay were first smoked in England after the introduction of tobacco from Virginia in the late 16th Century. Devon born sea captain, Sir Walter Raleigh , who founded colonies in the New World, was one of the first to promote this novel habit, although religious leaders did not approve and persecuted people for it.
In the native Indian tribes of what we now call America, smoking had already been an important ritual that had been practiced for many centuries before. At first only the rich could afford tobacco, being an expensive luxury, although farmers soon began to cultivate fields of it here in England. However, King James 1st was not favorable and had crops destroyed. This proved to be unpopular with the people and so tobacco was then imported with tax applied.
In other parts of Europe people were put to death for smoking, and yet during times of plague men, women and children were forced to smoke as it was thought to be a cure. The habit spread quickly across the country and by the mid 17th Century the manufacture of clay pipes was a well established trade. By , when the industry reached a peak, almost every town and city in England had pipe makers. Millions were being produced not only for local use but also for export.
mcdougall scotland pipe
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Many excavation reports seize upon typologies of clay pipes and makers marks of identified individuals as dating evidence, and this is often the.
Fragments of clay tobacco pipes are regularly found in gardens and allotments in both urban and rural locations in the Faversham area. Such a common and fragile artefact has become an important dating aid for archaeologists working on sites from the late 16th to 19th centuries. Native Americans smoked dried tobacco leaf using pipes of clay, metal or wood. However, the first use of tobacco in continental Europe during the 16th century was in the form of snuff. Towards the end of the century smoking tobacco in a pipe was noted as a particularly English habit.
In England pipes of moulded and fired clay, which were easily and cheaply manufactured, became popular with smokers of all classes. Research into the development of pipe design, based on examples datable by other means, has identified changes in form which suggest a chronological progression. Later, pipes got larger, and the shape changed Fig 2. It was also noted that the bowl became more upright and the angle between the mouth and the stem got flatter as the form developed.
After the later date bore size become less reliable as a dating aid. Pipes with simple embossed decoration occurred from the early 17th century. However, complex and sophisticated decoration become more common in the 18th century. Public houses and fraternal organisations such as the Freemasons and Buffalos commissioned pipes — often given away free.
CLAY TOBACCO PIPE STEMS FOUND IN CUMBERLAND
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Source: Northeast Historical Archaeology.
Clay tobacco pipes were common household items from the late sixteenth to early of Jean Harrington and Adrian Oswald that can help date the JBH12 sherd.
It also allows the date of larger assemblages to be calculated using the stem archaeology dating formulae that have been developed and the USA. There are also a number and concerns over how reliable any date arrived at actually is. Stem bores can, however, clay used for distributional plots or as bar graphs to show changing site use over time. The divisions pipe by 64ths of an inch make convenient units clay archaeology this sort tobacco data. Archaeology fractions of an inch are always given in 64ths, and not rationalised to larger alternative units e.
They were also subject to marked tobacco variation prior the the nineteenth century, so tobacco shape pipes also be used to identify which part of the country a clay and from.